Themes

A number of areas of cultural achievement deserve specific commentary. Each one demonstrates a civilization’s progress in developing rational thought. 

Mathematics

Law

Obelisks and Tentpoles: why some civilizations got science and some didn’t

The Benefits of Catastrophes

Education

Writing

Vocabulary

Techniques of calculation; the abacus and number systems

coinage systems

writing systems: uncials; punctuation; alphabetization

commerce



Map | Index | Bibliography | Sources